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Piyaporn Jaimeewong, Piyalak Ngernchuklin, Napatporn Promsawat, Soodkhet Pojprapai, Sukanda Jiansirisomboon, Methee Promsawat, Anucha Watcharapasorn
J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2018 Jun 1;18(6):4230-4235.
This work aims to study the effect of sintering temperature on properties of barium calcium zirconate titanate (BCZT) ceramics. The BCZT is a Pb-free material that shows excellent piezoelectric properties. In this study, BCZT ceramics were prepared from BCZT powders synthesized from barium nitrate, calcium nitrate, zirconium (IV) oxynitrate hydrate, titanium (IV) butoxide and citric acid precursors by the sol-gel auto-combustion method. The BCZT powder was calcined at the temperature ranging from 700 to 1000 °C. Green bodies were sintered at various temperatures (1200-1450 °C). The X-ray diffraction patterns showed only non-crystalline phase of as-burnt powder. For the calcined powders, XRD patterns showed that the amount of crystalline, perovskite phase increased with increasing calcination temperature. The crystalline particles have a spherical shape and the size in the range of 25-35 nm. For the BCZT ceramics sintered at 1200-1300 °C, the density tended to increase with increasing sintering temperature. Very high bulk densities of 5.62-5.63 g/cm3 (which were higher than those of the ceramics synthesized by the wet-chemical method) were achieved at the sintering temperature of 1400-1450 °C. Ceramics produced at these temperatures possessed fully-developed microstructures, very good dielectric properties as well as high response of polarization and strain to applied electric field.