Comparative Analysis of Serum Proangiogenic Biomarkers Between Those With and Without Diabetic Retinopathy

Tayyaba Gul Malik, Syed Shoaib Ahmed, Roquyya Gul, Eiman Ayesha

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2018 Sep;28(9):686-689.

PMID: 30158034



To compare the serum proangiogenic biomarkers in diabetic patients suffering from with and without diabetic retinopathy (DR).

Study design:

An observational study.

Place and duration of study:

Arif Memorial Teaching Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan and Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology/Centre for Research in Molecular Medicine, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan, from March to December 2017.


Forty patients with DR were included in group A and 15 patients without retinopathy (controls) were included in group B. Twelve serum pro-angiogenic biomarkers [Angiopoietin 2, Human Growth Factor (HGF), Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF), Placental Growth Factor (PLGF), Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A and C (VEGF-A and VEGF-C), Bone Morphogenetic Protein 9 (BMP9), Follistatin, Leptin, Interleukin-8 (IL8), Endothelin (ET)] were analysed by xMAP flow cytometry technique, results were compared between the two groups and statistical analysis was done using Mann-Whitney U test.


Serum ET, Follistatin and EGF were significantly raised in group A as compared to group B having p-values of 0.001, <0.001, and 0.033, respectively. Serum BMP9, Leptin, HGF, FGF and VEGF-C had p <0.001, 0.023, 0.020, and 0.009, respectively and were higher in group B than group A.


Serum ET, Follistatin and EGF were significantly higher in DR patients as compared to those without DR and should be considered to be significant biomarkers of retinal complications in diabetes mellitus.

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