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Extraction in chemistry is a separation process consisting in the separation of a substance from a matrix. According to the difference solubility of various components, the reagents with high solubility of the extracted components and low solubility of impurities are selected, and the extracted components can be extracted from the mixture. The most critical factor in extraction analysis is the choice of the reagents.
There are several factors to consider when choosing reagents for extraction analysis. First, the reagents cannot react with the extracted components. Second, the reagents should have a high solubility in the extracted components and a low solubility in the impurities. Third, the reagents used should be inexpensive, readily available, non-toxic, safe and easy to recycle. Furthermore, in order to better choose the reagents, it is necessary to understand the classification of the reagents. Reagents for extraction analysis can be divided into strong polar reagents, hydrophilic organic reagents and lipophilic organic reagents. The generally used strong polar reagents are water, acidic water and alkaline water. The common hydrophilic organic reagents are methanol, ethanol, acetone and others. In addition, the frequently-used lipophilic organic reagents are ether, chloroform, benzene, petroleum ether, etc.
Steam distillation method: This extraction analysis method is suitable for the extraction of certain volatile substances. The extracted ingredients can be distilled with water vapor without being destroyed. For example, jute yarn, nicotine, areca, paeonol, coumarin glycogen can be extracted by this method. Obviously, in the process of extraction analysis method, water is essential.
Supercritical fluid extraction analysis: Supercritical fluid extraction analysis is a kind of extraction technology, which uses supercritical fluid as the extraction solvent. A supercritical fluid is a fluid between a gas and a liquid that is above the critical temperature and pressure. This method has the characteristics of both liquid and gas, and the extraction efficiency is high. In the whole extraction process, almost no organic solvents are used. In addition, the extraction fluid can be recycled and the energy is saving. Common reagents used in this method are ethylene, propane and others.
Others: In addition to the fields mentioned above, there are many other fields where reagents for extraction analysis can be applied, including dialysis, precipitation, salting out method, microwave assisted extraction analysis and others. Dialysis is an important extraction analysis method. The dialysis method uses the properties that small molecules can pass through the semi-permeable membrane in solution, but large molecules cannot pass through to achieve the purpose of extraction analysis. Dimethyl sulfoxide, methanol, water and so on are the most commonly used reagents. Furthermore, precipitation is also a common extraction analysis method, and sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sulfuric acid and others are very commonly used.
Alfa Chemistry is one of the largest providers of reagents for extraction analysis in the world and the quality assurance is of prime importance to Alfa Chemistry. The solvent from Alfa Chemistry in the world is synonymous with reliability and excellent quality. Because of the exacting nature of our business and the regulatory demands placed upon our industry, Alfa Chemistry continues to be at the forefront in terms of compliance, accreditations and certifications.