Wright-Giemsa Stain

Wright-Giemsa Stain
Wright-Giemsa Stain


Wright-Giemsa Stain

  • Product code: ACMBS-12
  • Product type: Wright-Giemsa Solution (Solution A), Phosphate buffer(pH 6.8) (Solution B)
  • Specifications: 6x20mL, 4x250mL, 3x100mL (Box)
  • Intended use: Mainly use for staining of hematocytes in blood and marrow
  • Store temperature: 5℃~30℃
  • Expiry date: 18 Months

More Details

PrincipleMain componentsTest procedureResult interpretationPrecautions


Wright-Giemsa Stain, as modified from Romanowsky Stain technique. Staining of cells involves physical adsorption and chemical affinity which allows stain to penetrate and remain within cells. Because each cell and its components are different in chemical composition, their affinity to acid stain (Eosin) and alkaline stain (Methylene blue) of this kit varies significantly. After staining the smear with Wright's Stain, different types of cells will appear in different colors. Consequently, one can identify cells based on their stain color, shape and other physical characteristics.

Main components

Reagent compositionMain ingredient
1. Wright-Giemsa solution (Solution A)Wright dye, Giemsa dye
2. Phosphate buffer (pH 6.8)(Solution B)Phosphate

Test procedure

  • 1. Add Solution A (about 0.5~0.8 ml) to the smear and allow to cover the whole specimen. Stain for 1 minute.
  • 2. Add Solution B (2~3 times of Solution A) onto Solution A and mix thoroughly with a rubber pipette bulb. Allow to stain for 4~10 minutes. (Blood smear staining time can be slightly shorter, bone marrow smear staining time should be depending on the number of cells.)
  • 3. Rinse with water (Please do not first drain the staining solution, should be flushed by running water, to prevent sediment precipitation in the specimen.), waiting for dryness, microscopic examination.

Result interpretation

  • 1. Blood cell smear and Bone marrow smear stain: RBC appear pink, WBC cytoplasmic granules clear, and shows a variety of cell-specific color, nucleus stained Red purple, clear nuclear chromatin structure. 
  • 2. Vaginal discharge (Gynecological leucorrhea) smear stain:
  • ① Trichomonas:After stained trichomonas compare with live trichomonas showing completely different forms, under normal circumstances, cannot see flagella. After staining, most trichomonas appears as pyriform, round, elliptic or other irregular forms. The cytoplasm is stained bice or cerulean, nuclear small, jujube-like and the small nucleus often lies in one side. It should be observed carefully to separate from epithelia.

    ② Candidiasis (mold): Stained into dark blue, blastopores can be found and pseudo hyphal appears slim and straight.

    ③ White blood cells: Morphology same with the white blood cells in blood cell smear, generally more or less white blood cells, suggesting that the level of inflammation, the diagnosis of the doctor has a certain role.

    ④ Leptotrichia:slender as silk, gray and blue.

    ⑤ Gonococcus: Stained blue, typically kidney-shaped diplococcus, most appeared in white blood cells, tissue cells inside and outside. Note that those staphylococci are often present in women's vaginal smears, similar to gonococcus, in the form of paired diplococcus. Evaluate gonococcus carefully to avoid misdiagnosis. Gonococci are generally accompanied by many leukocytes. This stain is used for pre-screening but not for final diagnosis.

    ⑥ Gardnerella vaginalist: Blue and short rod shape.

  • 3. Exfoliated cells smear stain: Nucleus stained purple, the nucleolus stained blue. According to the differentiation program of Cytoplasm, the basophilic degree of change, showing shades ranging from blue.


  • 1. The length of staining depends on specimen type, smear thickness, the number of nucleated cells, cell type and room temperature etc. For blood smear, typically stain for 4~5minutes after adding Solution B, for bone marrow smear, staining time should be extended to more than 8 minutes. At lower room temperature, extend the staining time as needed. If the eosinophil appears becomes to base, to consider whether the time is too long staining.
  • 2. For bone marrow smear, as there are many fibrins that will clot quickly, the process of smearing must be fast. Do not use oxalate as anticoagulant, doing so would cause the nucleus to distort, chromatin to become compact, cytoplasm vacuole to form and oxalate crystal to appear.
  • 3. The staining should be performed with a sufficient volume to avoid drying out of the sample, to prevent the dye deposition on the smear.
  • 4. For hematocyte staining, if the weather is cold or humid, the smear should be incubated at 37℃ in order to prevent cells from shrinking or specimen fall off when staining.
  • 5. If the staining solution is loaded on the staining machine for use, the use time of Solution B after opening should not be too long to avoid flocculent sedimentation due to pipeline and air pollution.
  • 6. This product should be used by professionals and the results of the interpretation.
  • 7. Before use, please read user's instruction sheets carefully. Used within the validity period. And do personal hygiene protection.
  • 8. After used, the waste should be disposed of according to the requirements of the hospital or the environmental protection department.
  • 9. Production date, production lot number and expiry date printed on external packaging.

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